Answered By: Katie Hutchison
Last Updated: Nov 06, 2018     Views: 77396

In Chicago style, one uses the abbreviation ibid. in footnotes or endnotes when citing the same page from the same consecutively.  If, for example, you reference this article more than once, you may use the abbreviation in your footnotes like so:

  1. Susan Peck MacDonald, “The Erasure of Language,” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 619.
  2. MacDonald, 627.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid., 628.

Note: If you use two authors with the same last name, give the full name in the shortened reference.

Note: If you are using two or more works by that author, indicate which of the works you are citing. Use the last name, a shortened title, and page reference.

First note

1. Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.

Subsequent note

23. Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell, 121.

 

Op. cit. is used to direct your reader to a previously noted full citation located somewhere else in your work.  It is falling into disuse.  It must include some indication of the work you are referring to, the abbreviation op. cit. and should include the page number.  An example of use would appear like so:

  1. MacDonald op. cit., p.620.

Comments (13)

  1. Nice answer, thank you.
    by KM on Apr 15, 2018.
  2. Clear answer...easy to understand...thank you!
    by Filomena Usa on Jun 09, 2018.
  3. Well explained thanks
    by Jane mwangi on Jun 16, 2018.
  4. Concise! Helpful! Thank you.
    by Tom Ogal on Aug 06, 2018.
  5. Thank you so much. You have explained it very well in a very simple language to understand
    by GREYSON NYAMOGA on Oct 04, 2018.
  6. Can we use ibid after the op.cit.....?????
    by Pinkish on Oct 07, 2018.
  7. @Pinkish - op.cit. is falling into disuse. It may be simpler to avoid using it altogether. Or perhaps you can speak with your professor about his/her preferences.
    by Katie Hutchison on Oct 07, 2018.
  8. Well done!!
    Explained very clearly and simply. thanks again.
    by Lateef Ullah Qadri on Oct 09, 2018.
  9. If op cit is falling out of use, then how do you cite a source that has already been referenced before (but not immediately before, like for ibid)? It seems redundant to have to repeat the entire source again.
    by Nichole on Nov 02, 2018.
  10. @Nichole - Use the shortened citation.

    If you are using two or more works by that author, indicate which of the works you are citing. Use the last name, a shortened title, and page reference.

    1. Steven Nadler, A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011), 8.
    2. Raúl Sánchez, "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 243.
    3. Nadler, 8.
    by Katie Hutchison on Nov 06, 2018.
  11. Very helpful thank you
    by Edson Zvidzayi on Jan 30, 2020.
  12. Excellent good answer
    by Nnambenga on Feb 17, 2020.
  13. Thanks a great deal. I am currently working on a long essay and my supervisor insists on using the outdated version.
    by Eleanor B. on Mar 08, 2020.

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