Answered By: Katie Hutchison
Last Updated: Aug 08, 2016     Views: 1843

Use the below information to cite various interviews

Informational Interview

Informational interview provides non-recoverable data; hence it is not cited in the reference list and is only included in the in-text citations.

Basic Format:     (A. A. Last name of Interviewee, personal communication, Date)

A. A. Last name of Interviewee (personal communication, Date)

Examples:           1st citation

(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)

V.-G. Nguyen (personal communication, September 28, 1998)

 

Subsequent citation

(Nguyen, 1998)

Nguyen (1998)

 

Notes:

  • The date has to be written in this order: month, day, and year.
  • Personal communication is indicated within the parenthesis before the date.
  • If the name of the author is written within the text, write only personal communication and the date inside the parenthesis.
  • In the subsequent citations, only include the last name of the interviewee and year.

 

Third-party Interviews 

Unlike informational interviews, recoverable interviews from archives, multimedia, and publications are listed in both in-text citation and reference list. For interviews published online or in print, follow the appropriate guides and format for a specific reference (e.g. magazine, journal, and blog post). In some cases, you can combine different elements that correspond to a certain source in order to provide the readers with the essential information to locate the reference.

 

In-text Citation

  • In-text citation is usually written in a parenthesis with the last name of the author and year separated by a comma.

(Carlson, 2004)

  • If the last name of the author is included within the text, you only have to write the year inside the parenthesis.

Carlson (2004)

 

Reference List

  • The author’s name or the interviewee is reversed in the reference list with the last name first followed by the initials.
  • Include the name of the interviewer when citing the reference.
  • For interviews with no formal title, write “Interview by (Name of the Interviewer)” in lieu of the title.

 

Interviews in Archives and Collections

Basic Format:     Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of Collection (Call number, Box number, File name or number, etc.). Name of Repository, Location.

 

Recorded Interview in an Archive

Example:            
Smith, M. B. (1989, August 12). Interview by C. A. Kiesler [Tape recording]. President’s Oral History Project. American Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, DC.

 

Interview Transcription (no recording available)

Example:            
Sparkman, C. F. (1973). An oral history with Dr. Colley F. Sparkman/Interviewer: Orley B. Caudill. Mississippi Oral History Program (Vol. 289), University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg.

 

Television Interview

Basic Format:     Author. (Year, Month Day of Interview). Title of Interview. Interview by Interviewer’s Initials and Last Name. In Producer’s Last Name, Initials. Title of broadcast or series [Television broadcast]. City of origin: Studio or Distributor.

Example:            
Williams, R. (2007, June 3). Interview by L. King. Larry King Live [Television broadcast]. Los Angeles: Cable News Network.

 

Interview Online (audio clip)

Basic Format:     Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of Interview (Interviewer) [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

Example:            
Edleman, M. W. (2004, October 21). Marian Wright Edelman: Bush leaving kids behind (T. Smiley, Interviewer) [Audio file]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4120281

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