Answered By: Katie Hutchison
Last Updated: Oct 14, 2016     Views: 304

Here are some examples of common citation formats in CSE Style (Council of Science Editors, formally called the CBE Council of Biology Editors). For complete citation information, see Scientific Style and Format: the CSE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers.

Note: the CSE style describes three options for references; use the style which is commonly used in your discipline:

  • Citation-Sequence (C-S) system which uses numbers within the text to refer to the end references which are listed in the order they are referred to in the text. Subsequent citations to the same document use the same number as its initial citation:
    In text example: Modern scientific nomenclature really began with Linnaeus in botany1, but other disciplines 2,3 were not many years behind in developing various systems 4-7 for nomenclature and symbolization
  • Citation-Name (C-N) system which uses numbers within the text to refer to the end references which are listed alphabetically by author and then by title.:
    In text example: Modern scientific nomenclature really began with Linnaeus in botany 4, but other discipline 1,5 were not many years behind in developing various systems 2-3,6,10 for nomenclature and symbolization
  • Name-Year (N-Y) system which uses the surname of the author and the year of publication to refer to the end references which are then listed alphabetically by author and then by year:
    In text example: By contrast, the several antisera that have been raised against Sp1, a defined RNA polymerase II transcription factor (Kadonaga 1986), stain exclusively the nucleus . . .

General Principles for Formatting End References

  • In the C-S and C-N systems, the general sequence of information in a reference is author name, title, and additional items (including year of publication).
  • In the N-Y system, author names are followed by the year of publication; all the other items then follow in the same sequence (except for the year).
  • Author names with initials are recommended for reference lists that also include references to journal articles, for which names with initials are preferred. When there are 2-10 authors, all should be named; if more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “and others”.

Note: throughout CSE style, no commas are used to offset the author's last name from his or her initials, no space separates the first and middle initial, and periods do not, in general, follow initials.

Note: in CSE style, titles of periodicals (newspapers, journals, magazines) are capitalized as they normally are; book titles and article titles have only the first word of the title (and of any subtitles), as well as proper nouns, capitalized. Obvious exceptions are capitalized abbreviations and symbols (e.g., HIV-1, DDAVP, pH).

Examples:

Book by a single author C-S and C-N Sherman, C. The invisible Web : uncovering information sources search engines can't see. Medford, N.J.: CyberAge Books, Information Today; 2001. 439 p.
N-Y Sherman, C. 2001. The invisible Web : uncovering information sources search engines can't see. Medford, N.J.: CyberAge Books, Information Today; 439 p.
Book by two or more authors C-S and C-N Voet D, Voet JG. Biochemistry. New York: J Wiley; 1990. 1223 p.
N-Y Voet D, Voet JG. 1990. Biochemistry. New York: J Wiley. 1223 p.
Book with editors C-S and C-N Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon; 1990. 1811 p.
N-Y Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. 1990. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon. 1811 p.
Chapter within a book C-S and C-N Kuret JA, Murad F. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related substances. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon; 1990. p 1334−60.
  N-Y Kuret JA, Murad F. 1990. Adenohypophyseal hormones and related substances. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th ed. New York: Pergamon. p 1334−60.
Dissertation C-S and C-N Anders, A. Effects of large-scale climate on avian population dynamics across species' North American breeding distributions [dissertation]. [University Park, (PA)]: Pennsylvania State University; 2008.
N-Y Anders, A. 2008. Effects of large-scale climate on avian population dynamics across species' North American breeding distributions [dissertation]. [University Park, (PA)]: Pennsylvania State University.

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